Ḥajjím Joséf Davíd Azulái
Rabbinar Ḥajjím Joséf Davíd ben Jiṣ’ḥák Zeraḥjá Azulái (f. 1724 i Jerusalem; 21. mars 1807 i Livorno) (hebraisk חיים יוסף דוד אזולאי), ofte kalla haḤidá (etter forbokstavane i namnet hans, חיד"א), var ein rabbinsk lærd og ein framståande bibliofil som var ein pionér i historia om jødiske religiøse tekstar.
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He was born in Jerusalem, where he received his education from some local prominent scholars. He was the scion of a prominent rabbinic family, the grandson of Rabbi Abraham Azulai. His main teachers were Isaac ha-Kohen Rapoport, Rashash, and Chaim ibn Attar (the Ohr ha-Chaim). At an early age he showed proficiency in Talmud, Kabbalah, and Jewish history.
In 1755, he was—on the basis of his scholarship—elected to become an emissary (shaliach) for the small Jewish community in the Land of Israel, and he would travel around Europe extensively, making an impression in every Jewish community that he visited. According to some records, he left the Land of Israel three times (1755, 1770, and 1781), living in Hebron in the meantime. His travels took him to Western Europe, North Africa, and—according to legend—to Lithuania, where he met the Vilna Gaon. Wherever he went, he would examine collections of manuscripts of rabbinic literature, which he later documented in his Shem ha-Gedolim.
His early scholarship
While in general a type of the Oriental rabbi of his age, a strict Talmudist, and a believer in the Kabbalah, his studious habits and exceptional memory awakened in him an interest in the history of rabbinical literature.
He accordingly began at an early age a compilation of passages in rabbinical literature in which dialectic authors had tried to solve questions that were based on chronological errors. This compilation he called העלם דבר (Some Oversights); it was never printed.
Azulai's scholarship made him so famous that in 1755 he was chosen as meshulach, (emissary), an honor bestowed on such men only as were, by their learning, well fitted to represent the Holy Land in Europe, where the people looked upon a rabbi from the land of Israel as a model of learning and piety.
In 1755 he was in Germany, in 1764 he was in Egypt, and in 1773 he was in Tunis, Morocco, and Italy, he seems to have remained in latter country until 1777, most probably occupied with the printing of the first part of his biographical dictionary, Shem ha-Gedolim, (Livorno, 1774), and with his notes on the Shulchan Aruch, entitled Birke Yosef, (Livorno, 1774-76). In 1777 he was in France, and in 1778 in Holland.
On October 28 of the latter year he married, in Pisa, his second wife, Rachel; his first wife, Sarah, had died in 1773. Noting this event in his diary, he adds the wish that he may be permitted to return to Palestine. This wish seems not to have been realized. At all events he remained in Leghorn (Livorno), occupied with the publication of his works.
Azulai's literary activity is of an astonishing breadth. It embraces every department of rabbinical literature: exegesis, homiletics, casuistry, Kabbalah, liturgics, and literary history. A voracious reader, he noted all historical references; and on his travels he visited the famous libraries of Italy and France, where he examined the Hebrew manuscripts.
As a writer Azulai was most prolific. The list of his works, compiled by Isaac Benjacob, runs to seventy-one items; but some are named twice, because they have two titles, and some are only small treatises. The veneration bestowed upon him by his contemporaries was that given to a saint. He reports in his diary that when he learned in Tunis of the death of his first wife, he kept it secret, because the people would have forced him to marry at once. Legends printed in the appendix to his diary, and others found in Aaron Walden's Shem ha-Gedolim he-Ḥadash (compare also Ma'aseh Nora, pp. 7-16, Podgorica, 1899), prove the great respect in which he was held. Many of his works are still extant and studied today. His scope was exceptionally wide, from halakha (Birkei Yosef) and Midrash to his main historical work Shem ha-Gedolim. Despite his Sephardi heritage, he appears to have been particularly fond of the Chassidei Ashkenaz (a group Medieval German rabbis, notably Judah the Chassid).
His Role As Shaliach
The Chida's role as shaliach, or emissary, and major Jewish traveler of his day is a little known or appreciated aspect of his life. He left Israel twice on five year long fundraising missions that took him as far west as Tunisia and as far north as Great Britain and Amsterdam. His mission: Raise money for the support and survival of the beleaguered Jewish community of Hebron. At that time, the Jewish community of Hebron, as well as other communities in Israel, suffered the brutal and constant privations of Arab and Turkish landlords and warlords who demanded exorbitant sums of money in the form of arbitrary and draconian taxes. Moreover, money and work in that part of the world were very hard to come by. Without the missions of people like the Chida, the very physical survival of these communities came into question.
Yet the task of raising the necessary funds was much more complicated than most people realize. The right candidate for the mission, ideally, combined the characteristics of statesmanship, physical strength and endurance, Torah knowdledge and understanding and the ability to speak multiple languages. They had to have the right stature and bearing to impress the Jewish communities they visited, they often had to be able to arbitrate matters of Jewish law for the locals and, ideally, they were multi-lingual so that they could communicate with both Jew and Gentile along the way. Finally, they had to be willing to undertake the dangerous, time consuming mission that would take them away from their families for so long. At that time, travel was far more time consuming and much more dangerous than it is today, especially for Jews. One in ten emissaries sent abroad for these fund raising missions never made it back alive. Emissaries would often divorce their wives before leaving, so that if they died along the way and their passing could not be verified, their wives would be able to legally remarry. If they returned safely from their journey, they would remarry their wives, who would sometimes wait as long as five years for their husbands to return from their mission.
Moreover, the Chida records numerous instances of miraculous survival and dangerous threats of his day, among them, close scrapes with the Russian Navy during its support of the Ali Bey uprising against the Turks, the danger of boarding and worse by the Knights of Malta, the possible anger of English government officials against someone entering the country from France or Spain as well as those aforementioned countries'wrath against someone crossing back over from their hated enemy, England, and the daily danger of running into various anti-semitic locals and nobles throughout mainland Europe (especially Germany).
No discussion of the Chida's bravery and accomplishment during his fund raising missions is complete without mentioning his intact and published travel diaries, which places him in the ranks of Benjamin of Tudela in terms of providing a comprehensive first hand account of Jewish life and historical events throughout the Europe and Near East of his day.
Notatbøkene hans vart utgjevne i to deler på til saman fire hefte. Den første delen var Sjem haggedolím (‘namna på de store’), som inneheldt forfattarnamna; og den andre delen var Vangad laḥakhamím (‘de vises råd’), som inneheldt lista over verktitlar. Denne avhandlinga sikra Azulái ein varig plass i den jødiske bokhistoria. Ho inneheld data som elles kunne ha gått tapt, og ho viser at forfattaren hadde kritisk sans. Med vitskaplige metodar undersøkte han för eksempel spørsmålet om kommentaren til sefer Dibré hajjamím som tradisjonelt blir tilskriven Rasji er ekte. Likevel trudde han fullt og fast på at Ḥajjím Vital hadde drukke vatn frå Mirjámkjelda og at dette gjorde at han kunne tileigne seg heile kabbaláen frå Jiṣ’ḥák Luria på under to år. Azulái oppgav ofte i kva fall han hadde sett med eigne augor kva versjonar av visse manuskript som framleis fanst.
A complete bibliographical list of his works is found in the preface to Benjacob's edition of Shem ha-Gedolim, Vilna, 1852, and frequently reprinted;
- Eliakim Carmoly, in the edition of Shem ha-Gedolim, Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1843;
- Fuenn, Keneset Yisrael, p. 342;
- Hazan, Hama'alot li-Shelomoh, Alexandria, 1894;
- Aaron Walden, Shem ha-Gedolim he-Ḥadash, 1879;
- and the diary Ma'agal Ṭob, edited by Elijah Benamozegh, Leghorn, 1879;
- Heimann Joseph Michael, Or ha-Ḥayyim, No. 868.
|This article is based entirely or in part on the article “Chaim Joseph David Azulai” from the English Wikipedia. It may be copied, distributed and/or modified according to the conditions of the GNU Free Documentation License.|